Citations for information included in the The Economics of Child Abuse Infographic are found in “The Economics of Child Abuse: A Case Study of San Francisco,” a report by San Francisco Child Abuse Prevention Center and Haas School of Business, University of California. Below are citations for additional sources of information not included within that report.

Data regarding the number of child abuse reports nationally can be found at U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children’s Bureau (2016). Available here.

The comparison between the total cost of child abuse and college tuition for 3000 students is based upon the average annual cost of tuition, room and board at 4-year institutions as set forth in 2016, Digest of Education Statistics 2015, Table 330.10 (accessed November 2016). Average undergraduate tuition and fees and room and board rates charged for full-time students in degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by level and control of institution: 1963–64 through 2014–15. Available here.  The total number of students who graduated from San Francisco Unified School District is available here.

The comparison between the total cost of child abuse and the municipal expenditure on homeless is based on data from Herring, Chris and Yarbrough, Dilara, Punishing the Poorest: How the Criminalization of Homelessness Perpetuates Poverty in San Francisco (June 18, 2015). Available here or here.

Data regarding the effectiveness of child abuse prevention programs includes: Olds, D.L, Eckenrode, J., Henderson, C.R., Kitzman, H., Powers, J., Cole, R., Sidora, K., Morris, P., Pettitt, Luckey, D. (1997). Long-term effects of home visitation on maternal life course and child abuse and neglect. Fifteen-year follow-up of a randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278(8), 637-643 (finding that home visitation can decrease child abuse by 48%). Prinz, R. J., Sanders, M. R., Shapiro, C. J., Whitaker, D. J., Lutzker, J. R. (2009). Population-Based Prevention of Child Maltreatment: The U.S. Triple P System Population Trial. Prevention Science, 10, 1–12 (finding that the Triple P parenting education program can decrease child abuse by 22%). See also Walker, J. S., Bruns, E. J., VanDenBerg, J. D., Rast, J., Osher, T. W., Miles, P., National Wraparound Initiative Advisory Group (2004). Phases and activities of the wraparound process. Portland, OR: National Wraparound Initiative, Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children’s Mental Health, Portland State University.